Samsun, which has hosted many civilizations with its history of thousands of years, is the biggest city in its region in socio-economical terms.
Samsun is located in the middle of the Black Sea Region coastline, between the deltas where Yeşilırmak and Kızılırmak Rivers flow into the Black Sea. The city has a land measure of 9,364 Km2. Its geographical location is between 40o 50’- 41o 51’ northern latitudes and 37o 08’-34o 25' eastern longitudes. The Black Sea is located in the north of Samsun and the cities neighboring Samsun are Ordu in the east, Sinop in the west, Tokat and Amasya in the south, Çorum in the south-west.
Samsun has generally moderate climatic conditions. However, the climate at the coastline and the interior parts of the city differ. The weather conditions may change several times throughout a day.
Samsun, with a population of 260.868 people, ranked 17th out of 63 cities in terms population in 1927 when the total population of Turkey was 13.648.270 people. As of the end of 2016, Samsun ranked 16th out of 81 cities with its population of 1.295.927 people. In 2016, the population of Samsun increased by 16.043 people compared to the previous year.
The land measure of the city is 9083.39 km2 (excluding lakes) and constitutes approximately 1.2% of Turkey's land measure. While the population per kilometer square in Samsun was 29 people in 1927, this number raised to 143 people in 2016. While the population per kilometer square in Turkey was 18 people in 1927, this number raised to 104 people in 2016.
The population share of Samsun tends to decrease continuously. The population share of Samsun increased between 1927-1965. Having continuously decreased as from 1965, its population decreased to 1.62% at the end of 2016.
Samsun is still the biggest city of the Black Sea Region in terms of its economy and population. Having a strategically significant geographical location, Samsun has great potential thanks to its seaway, highway, airway and railway transportation possibilities.
There are 6 Organized Industrial Sites in the city, four of which are active; one of which is being designed and one of which is being established.
The agricultural products produced at Bafra and Çarşamba Plains initially supply food for the region and also marketed to the four corners of the country. The export opportunities of the agricultural products have a potential of making a significant contribution to the city's economy.
Though tourism has a small share in Samsun’s economy, there are a great number of historical and touristic places worth visiting at the districts and villages as well as the city center.
According to the urban socio economic development index report(1996) for Samsun, the city ranked 35th out of 76 cities, with its development index of -0.04224.
According to the "Socio-Economic Development Index Report for Cities and Regions” prepared by the State Planning Organization in 2003, Samsun ranked 32nd out of 81 cities with its development index of +0.08791.
Samsun, which had ranked 32nd in the Socio-Economic Development Index Report for Cities and Regions in 2003, fell back in the socio-economic development index study in 2011 ranking 33rd out of 81 cities.
The geographical location and structure of Samsun have the edge over other cities of Black Sea Region for industrial investments. This characteristic of the city laid a foundation for establishing large industrial enterprises particularly copper, fertilizer and cigarette factories.
The industrialization period of the city, which started with the installation of state-owned industrial facilities, continued with the establishment of Organized Industrial Zones and private sector investments during the period of post-1980.
In 2015, 42.55% of the electricity consumed in Samsun was consumed by industrial enterprises, while 47.64% of the electricity consumed by industrial enterprises in Turkey.
ORGANIZED INDUSTRIAL ZONES
In our city, there are 6 Organized Industrial Zones: Central Organized Industrial Zone, Kavak Organized Industrial Zone, Food Specialization Organized Industrial Zone, Bafra Joint&Medical Specialization Organized Industrial Zone, Havza Agrofood Processing and Agricultural Machinery Specialization Organized Industrial Zone which is in allotment phase, Çarşamba Organized Industrial Zone which is in establishment phase.
There is no vacant parcel in the Central Organized Industrial Zone. The allotment of parcels at Kavak Organized Industrial Zone continues. The title of Bafra Organized Industrial Zone was changed into Samsun- Bafra Joint&Medical Specialization Organized Industrial Zone on 08.06.2016. The allotment of parcels at Bafra Organized Industrial Site continues for investors. There is no vacant parcel at Food Specialization Organized Industrial Zone. Havza Agrofood Processing and Agricultural Machinery Specialization Organized Industrial Zone in allotment phase. The establishment of Çarşamba Organized Industrial Zone continues at a fast pace.
The production and export in Samsun are performed at Organized Industrial Zones, particularly at Central Organized Industrial Zone.
At Central Organized Industrial Zone, there are 76 enterprises and 5.036 employees. At Kavak Organized Industrial Zone, there are 25 enterprises and 721 employees. At Bafra Organized Industrial Zone, there are 22 enterprises and 600 employees. At Samsun Food Organized Industrial Zone, there are 14 enterprises and 195 employees. At all the Organized Industrial Zones in the city, there are 137 enterprises and 6.552 employees in total.
SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIAL AREAS
As of April 2017, there are 15 small-scale industrial areas in Samsun, and there are 7.817 enterprises and 22.445 employees at these industrial areas. There are 3 small-scale industrial areas in Tekkeköy, 2 in Canik, 1 in Çarşamba, 2 in Bafra, 1 in Terme, 1 in Ondokuzmayıs, 1 in Alaçam, 1 in Vezirköprü, 2 in Havza and 1 in Ladik.
500 LARGEST INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES OF TURKEY
According to the ‘500 largest industrial enterprises of Turkey’ poll conducted by Istanbul Chamber of Commerce and Industry, in 2016, there 5 companies from Samsun among the first 500 largest industrial enterprises, and also 5 companies from Samsun among the second 500 largest industrial enterprises.
According to the ‘500 largest industrial enterprises of Turkey’, there are 10 Samsun companies in total with a share of 1.00% among the first 1000 industrial enterprises in 2016, while there are 7 Samsun companies with a share of 0.70% among the list in 2005.
SAMSUN FREE TRADE ZONE
Samsun Free Trade Zone was officially put into service within Samsun Port area on 20 March 1998. The area and boundaries of Samsun Free Trade Zone were specified by the Council of Ministers' decision No:95/7523 on 27 November 1995, and established on a 73.150m2 area which was taken over from TCDD.
The total trade volume of Samsun Free Trade Zone is 80.897.325 $ in 2016, while this total was 120.919.752 $ in 2015.
The total trade volume of Samsun Free Trade Zone increased by 579.4% between 2002-2016. Compared to the previous year, the total trade volume of Samsun Free Trade Zone decreased by 33.1% in 2016.
In 2016, 12.46% of the total trade of Samsun Free Trade Zone is abroad from the zone, 44.13% is to Turkey from the zone, 4.09% is to the zone from Turkey, 39.32% is to the zone from abroad.
CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY
There are 6 chambers of commerce and industry in our city. As of 20 June 2017, there are 10.598 active members registered to these chambers. 1.604 of these member companies are joint stock companies, 4.995 are limited companies, 3.666 are individual proprietorships, 229 are cooperative union, 56 are collective companies, 47 are commercial enterprises, 1 is limited partnerships.
As of 20 June 2017, 64.6% of the companies are members of Samsun CCI, 13.3% are members of Bafra CCI, 9.9% are members of Çarşamba CCI, 4.9% are members of Terme CCI, 3.8% are members of Vezirköprü CCI, 3.5% are members of Havza CCI.
SAMSUN CHAMBER OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY
Samsun Chamber of Commerce and Industry whose number of active members increased by 2.16% in 2016 compared to the previous year reached the total active member number of 6.845 increasing the number by 15.6% between 2002-2016.
As of the end of 2016, 1.259 of the members are joint stock companies, 3.691 are limited companies, 1.723 are natural persons.
In 2016, 66.953 companies in Turkey reached an export amount of 142.544.457.000 $. Compared to the previous year, in 2016, the export amount of Turkey decreased by 0.90%, the number of exporter companies increased by 2.84%, the export amount per company decreased by 3.64%.
In 2016, 247 companies operating in Samsun reached an export amount of 358.688.000 $. According to the export amount of 2016, Samsun ranked 26th. Compared to the previous year, in 2016, the export amount of Samsun decreased by 9.98%, the number of exporter companies decreased by 1.98%, the export amount per company decreased by 8.15%.
In 2016, 68.635 companies in Turkey reached an import amount of 198.617.392.000 $. Compared to the previous year, in 2016, the import amount of Turkey decreased by 4.2%, the number of importer companies decreased by 1.1%, the import amount per company decreased by 3.1%.
In 2016, 271 companies operating in Samsun reached an import amount of 580.733.000 $. According to the import amount of 2016, Samsun ranked 21st.
The import amount share of Samsun which had been 0.17% in 2002 was 0.29% in 2016. The number of importer companies in Samsun which had been 138 in 2002 was 271 in 2016increasing by 96.4%. The import amount per company in Samsun which had been 648.119 $ in 2002 was 2.142.928 $ in 2016 increasing by 230.6%. The total amount of import in Samsun which had been 89.440.000 $ in 2002 was 580.733.000 $ in 2016 increasing by 549.3%.